The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. Identification and revision of R. apiculata are largely based on morphological characteristics. In Peninsular Malaysia it takes 35 years for R. apiculata to reach a stem diameter of 19 cm at breast height. Rhizophoraceae. Ecological Research 3: 227-238. a Butanol, b chloroform, c ethanol, d…, GCMS analysis of methanol extracts a showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic…, Antioxidant activity of R. apiculata solvent extracts at different concentration. In large concessions of 2000-4000 ha for wood chipping in Sabah, a diameter limit of 10.2 cm is used, provided that 100 seed trees per ha are left. This process involves selecting a well-formed tree and felling all pole-sized trees around it within a radius drawn by a stick 1.2-1.8 m long. It is killed by frost and by extended periods of near-freezing temperatures. A stand of R. apiculata in southern Thailand had an annual leaf production of 7 t/ha and 20 t/ha of wood. Seedlings tend to be taller in shade and produce fewer roots. For biomass calculation, tree height and diameter were measured in plot of 10m x 10m in compartment 18, 31, 71, 74 and 67. The system of final harvesting of trees for fuelwood varies between countries. is one of the most important species in mangrove forest and often used for forest rehabilitation, particularly at Muara Teluk Naga Village, Tangerang District. Large concessions in Indonesia require felling of trees down to a stem diameter of 7 cm in 50 m wide strips interspaced with 20 m undisturbed strips in a proposed 20-year rotation. van Vliet, G.J.C.M., 1976. Fruit an ovoid or inversely pear-shaped berry, 2-3.5 cm long, rather rough, brown. Allelochemical interaction of the mangrove species was speculated to play an important role in dominance in the harsh mangrove environment. may occur throughout South-East Asia as a low, tufted ground cover under the canopy. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. One-seeded fruits start to germinate when still hanging on the tree. Other Uses The bark is an important local source of tannin The bark is rich in tannin, used for tanning leather and to toughen and dye fishing lines, ropes and nets. Role of Acrostichum species in natural regeneration of Rhizophora species in Malaysia. Bai X, Lai T, Zhou T, Li Y, Li X, Zhang H. Molecules. in Papua New Guinea. Tree growth, dynamics, and productivity in a mature mangrove forest in Malaysia. The woods of Rhizophora species are primarily utilized for firewood and for making charcoal. Additional planting and planting in denuded areas mostly succeeds well, provided the ecological conditions are suitable. 2020 Jul 29;15(7):e0236319. Rhizophora in Australasia - some clarification of taxonomy and distribution. Evergreen tree, up to over 30 m tall and with trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, generally much smaller in exploited forests; bole 10-12 m; stem supported by numerous, lateral, much branched stilt roots; aerial roots sometimes develop from the lower branches; taproot usually abortive; branching primarily sympodial. Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Rhizophora apiculata Blume: Morphological, Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods Gurudeeban Selvaraj1,2*, Satyavani Kaliamurthi1,2, Ramanathan Thirungnasambamdam1 Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. The methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth and induces the apoptosis through ROS generation and sensitizes the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 lung cancer cells. Few production statistics from natural or planted stands are available. 2012 Sep 6;17(9):10675-82. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910675. Tropical Ecology 28: 274-288. In recent years it has been extensively harvested for production of wood chips in East Malaysia and Indonesia. In Sri Lanka, Cerebera manghas is used in making masks for many traditional cultural activities. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. Tropical Ecology 21: 113-124. Read "Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2, Plant Cell & Environment" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. produces a tannin that can be used for tanning leather.  |  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236319. Felled trees are bucked into billets of about 1 m long, and sometimes debarked before they are transported out of the swamp forest. There are no known breeding programmes. In nurseries shade is neither advantageous nor harmful. Presence of phenols and flavonoids of R. apiculata was analysed using gallic acid…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method ( a ) and…, FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. If cut at least 20 cm above the stilt roots, regeneration is without problems. Srivastava, P.B.L., Keong, G.B. have been reported to be the major pests of newly planted propagules. Thailand has prescribed the maintainance of a 10 m uncut strip along waterways to reduce the effects of waves and currents on regeneration. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. In practice, thinning is irregular, incomplete and selective, and poorly accessible stands are often neglected. & Muktar, A., 1987. or R. mucronata. The wood of R. apiculata can be split easily and has a high energy value, making it in great demand as firewood and for making charcoal. HHS Occasionally, bagworms and larvae of the moth Strelote lipara cause localized defoliation of trees and seedlings. ex Bercht. Ninety Rhizophora apiculata leaf samples were collected from different compartments (18, 31, 71, 74, 42 and 55) based on tree age and management. Agroforestry Uses: A part of the mangrove swamps, the tree helps to protect inland areas from the effects of the ocean, including stabilizing the shore line and giving protection from strong winds and storms. YieldsIn Malaysia, the 30-year rotation har- vested yield of green wood has been about 136– 299 mt/ha (61–133 t/ac). In Vietnam, annual wood production is about 60 000 t. The energy value of the stems, branches and prop roots is 15 000-19 000 kJ/kg, of charcoal 32 200 kJ/kg. The root protrudes from the fruit, producing a green, spindle-shaped rod (hypocotyl) of up to 40 cm long. Media in category "Rhizophora apiculata"The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. As thinning is a commercial operation, its timing, as well as the selection of tree species and stem diameter are influenced by market demand. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining (. In some plantations, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascularis) and grapsid crabs (Sesarma spp.) (Editor): Flora Malesiana Series I, Vol. Further, antimicrobial … The main agroforestry uses from this species are soil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna and also as timber products which are fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicines [7];[8]. Rhizophora apiculata. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata. R. apiculata is the most common mangrove species. 2018 Jun 8;23(6):1395. doi: 10.3390/molecules23061395. Production and international trade In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Further, antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts were assessed against human clinical pathogenic bacteria, and the results showed that butanol and methanol extract has potential antimicrobial activity. Leaf samples in the Matang Mangrove Forest which consists of almost pure stands of R. apiculata contain per 100 g dry matter: N 0.4-1 g, P 0.1 g, K 0.9-1.2 g, Ca 1.1-2.0 g, Mg 0.4-0.8 g, Na 1.6-1.9 g. The quantity of tannin in the bark is very variable, 8-40% in air-dried bark. 2013 Mar;11(2):149-57. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(13)60042-4. 2017 Ecophysiological responses of young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) to … In replanting programmes at mangrove sites in Southeast Asia due to its multitude of uses from 20.5 cm Vietnam. 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Sprouting from dormant buds and bending upwards to form another erect stem Search History, and in! Woodchips or converted for agricultural and aquacultural purposes the traditional medicine accessible stands often... Harvesting of trees and seedlings 54 ( 1 ):118-29. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364 ( 13 60042-4... Collections of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents allelochemical interaction of the sea 10 or 15 (... Darkens gradually ; it is a more typical height within a radius drawn by a scolytid beetle ( Poecilips )!